Anthocyanin and phenolic profiles of berry skins from Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot in the Yakima Valley of Washington were influenced by sun exposure and temperature in 1999 and 2000. Growing degree days (base 10°C) accumulated between veraison and harvest were lower in 2000 than in 1999. Total skin monomeric anthocyanin (TSMA) concentrations were higher in 2000 than in 1999 in any given treatment. Berry temperature was increased as much as 13°C above ambient and shaded cluster temperatures when clusters were exposed to sunlight, regardless of aspect for north-south oriented rows. However, maximum fruit temperatures were higher for clusters on the west side of the canopy because ambient temperatures were higher after 1200 hr. Temperatures of west-exposed clusters at times exceeded 40°C. East-exposed clusters had higher TSMA concentrations than west-exposed or shaded clusters. To separate light and temperature effects, west-exposed clusters were cooled to the temperature of shaded clusters and shaded clusters were heated to the temperature of west-exposed clusters. Exposure to sunlight increased TSMA concentrations regardless of temperature in both years. In 1999 and 2000, cooling sun-exposed clusters increased TSMA concentrations. Heating shaded clusters decreased TSMA concentrations in 1999, but had no effect during the cooler ripening period of 2000. Ultraviolet (UV) light barriers did not influence either cluster temperature or TSMA concentrations. Decreased TSMA concentrations in berry skins from west-exposed clusters were due to temperature and not to UV radiation. Exposure to solar radiation increased concentrations of the 3-glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin. In 2000, sun-exposed clusters, regardless of aspect, had almost 10 times greater concentrations of total flavonols than shaded clusters. UV-light barriers significantly reduced individual and total flavonol concentrations, while temperature had little to no effect on their concentrations.
Acknowledgments: The authors thank the Washington Wine Advisory Committee for partial support of this study.
- Copyright 2002 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture