Genotypic analysis of ancient grapevine accessions from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and the United States reveals that most correspond to two ancient cultivars still cultivated in Spain: Muscat of Alexandria and Listán Prieto. The latter is grown throughout North and South America under different names such as País, Criolla Chica, Negra Peruana, Misión, and Mission. Most remaining ancient American cultivar genotypes analyzed correspond to hybrid progeny of Muscat of Alexandria, Listán Prieto, or both. We conclude that these two cultivars are major founders of ancient American viticulture.
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