A field study was conducted from 2007 to 2010 to examine regional and seasonal variability of the main compounds responsible for green aromas in grapes and wines, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and C6 compounds. Sixty-nine commercial Vitis vinifera L. Merlot vineyards located in three distinctly different winegrape growing regions within the Central Valley of California were sampled at commercial harvest, fruit samples were analyzed for green aroma compounds and standard chemometrics, and several weather parameters such as growing degree days and rainfall were recorded at the vineyard level. Seasonal variation was found to be more important than regional variation, and similar trends among regions were found within each season. Temperature during the spring, a period of active growth, was found to be a significant driver of fruit green aroma compounds at harvest, likely due to its interactions with vine vigor and fruit shading.
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