Table 3

Concentration of volatile compounds (μg/L) of red wines treated with different concentrations of carbon.

Volatile compound concentration (μg/L)a,b
Carbon treatment
CompoundcAromad0 g/hL5.0 g/hL10 g/hL20 g/hL30 g/hL
aMean of triplicate analysis. Different letters indicate means that differ significantly at p < 0.05.
btr: compounds occurring at trace levels, for which weak area did not allow quantification; nd: not determined since the relative peak contained more than one component as proved by mass-spectrometry.
cAsterisk denotes compounds for which significant differences between treatments were observed.
dAs reported in Sigma-Aldrich Flavour and Fragrance Catalogue.
Alcohols
2-Methyl-1-propanolWinelike10648995197031047810219
1-ButanolMedicinal242226219235232
3-Methyl-1-butanol*Fusel oil, whisky122313a121589a108951b111048b109544b
3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol4138363839
1-PentanolAlcoholic, iodoform-like5856555557
3-Methyl-1-pentanolWine, green4643424142
1-Hexanol*Slightly fruity, green1479a1428a1357b1348b1317b
(E) 3-Hexen-1-olGreen, grass5455494948
3-Etoxy-1-propanol8377737884
(Z) 3-Hexen-1-olBitter, fatty6465585960
(E) 2-Hexen-1-ol2019191918
(Z) 2-Hexen-1-olGrass2927242928
2-EthylhexanolSweet3129303140
LinaloolFloral, citrus, lemon, orange, fragrant, sweet2115nd15nd
1-OctanolWax2825211715
α-TerpineolFragrant, floral, lilac3938373736
Nerol77767
Geraniol*Sweet, floral, rose, fruity76a27b33b22bc11c
Benzyl alcoholFaint aromatic654624666610613
2-Phenylethyl alcohol*Rose, honey, fragrant, floral59092a54389b57683b5606b54066b
Esters
3-Methylbutyl acetateBanana, candied373a334a248b227b207c
(Z) Ethyl 2-butenoateRum2928262726
Ethyl hexanoate*Fruity, apple, banana, winelike117a99b64c52c44d
2-Oxoethylpropanoate87586
Hexyl acetateForaltrtrtrtrtr
(E) 3-Hexen-1-ol acetateFruit, green5755525257
Ethyl lactateFruity, buttery1986518976187731916620065
Ethyl octanoate*Fruity, banana, applelike, pineapple, brandy144a99b43c25d24d
Ethyl-2-hydroxycaprinoateGreen, fruit16141598158616492057
Ethyl decanoateBrandy, oily, fruity, grapelike3417293042
Ethyl cinnamateSweet, honey, balsamic, cinnamon, plum1714151214
Acids
PropanoicRancid43trtrtr
2-MethylpropanoicPenetrating, rancid butter1312111112
3-MethylbutanoicRancid, cheese, sweaty93tr43
HexanoicRancid, sour, cheese, fatty742797685606675
Octanoic*Oily, fatty1283a1121b1037c914d783e
Decanoic*Fatty, unpleasant rancid885705615508d446e
Benzoic9793959297
DodecanoicFatty79ndndndnd
Aldehydes and ketones
FurfuralWoody, almond, baked bread138134124120116
5-Methylfurfural518506495500545
β-DamascenoneHoney, tea898911
Phenols
4-PropylphenolMedicinal1819191720
EugenolStrong, spicy, cinnamon, clove3028292732
4-EthylphenolMedicinal, phenolic, pungent136135141131140
Sulfurs
2-Methyltetrahydro-thiophen-3-one1918161515
2-Methylthioethanol1413121214
3-Methylthio-1-propanol546488506528556
Miscellaneous
2-FuranmethanolCaramel34nd364139