Table 2

Summary of physiological characteristics of 35 Brettanomyces strains.

Character testedFrequencyIsolates (%)
Carbon source growth
    Arginine, cellulose, proline, tartrate00
    Arabinose, citrate, starch39
    Lactose, mannitol, raffinose411
    Cellobiose, maltose3291
Nitrogen source growth
    Arginine, proline35100
Temperature growth
    at 37°C1337
    at 10°C1131
    Tolerance >10%35100
Sulfite tolerance
    >30 mg/L at pH 3.41749
pH growth
    at pH 2.03394
4-EP and 4-EG (μg/L)
    High (>2000 4-EP; >1500 4-EG)1749
    Medium (1000–2000 4-EP;700–1500 4-EG)617
    Low (<50 4-EP; <60 4-EG)720
    None (<4.0 4-EP and 4-EG)717