Table 2

Summary of physiological characteristics of 35 Brettanomyces strains.

Character testedFrequencyIsolates (%)
Carbon source growth
    Arginine, cellulose, proline, tartrate00
    Adonitol26
    Arabinose, citrate, starch39
    Lactose, mannitol, raffinose411
    Ethanol926
    Glycerol1029
    Lactate1234
    Succinate1337
    Malate1440
    Galactose2880
    Cellobiose, maltose3291
    Trehalose3497
    Sucrose35100
Nitrogen source growth
    Nitrate2571
    Arginine, proline35100
Temperature growth
    at 37°C1337
    at 10°C1131
Alcohol
    Tolerance >10%35100
Sulfite tolerance
    >30 mg/L at pH 3.41749
pH growth
    at pH 2.03394
4-EP and 4-EG (μg/L)
    High (>2000 4-EP; >1500 4-EG)1749
    Medium (1000–2000 4-EP;700–1500 4-EG)617
    Low (<50 4-EP; <60 4-EG)720
    None (<4.0 4-EP and 4-EG)717